Dec 13, 2012

INTERNATIONAL CRIMINAL COURT JUDGES CONFIRM JURISDICTION IN CASE AGAINST FORMER IVORIAN PRESIDENT

Appeals judges at the International Criminal Court (ICC) today unanimously dismissed an argument on its jurisdiction presented by defence lawyers for former Ivorian president Laurent Gbagbo, who is currently facing trial there on charges of crimes against humanity.

The lawyers had questioned Mr. Gbagbo’s prosecution by the ICC, arguing that Cote d’Ivoire is not formally a state party to the Rome Statute. However, the court’s Appeals Chamber dismissed the appeal and confirmed an earlier decision of the Pre-Trial Chamber I.

In August, the Pre-Trial Chamber had declined to grant Mr Gbagbo’s request to find that the Court would lack jurisdiction over the post-2010 election period and events on which the warrant of arrest and the charges laid against him are based.

Côte d'Ivoire was rocked by a post-election crisis in late 2010, when Alassane Ouattara won a disputed presidential run-off election that led to months of deadly violence when Mr. Gbagbo – the runner-up and incumbent – refused to step down. He was later captured by security forces and transported to The Hague in the Netherlands to face trial at the ICC.

Mr. Gbagbo allegedly bears individual criminal responsibility, as an indirect co-perpetrator, for four counts of crimes against humanity, namely murder, rape and other sexual violence, persecution and other inhuman acts, allegedly committed during the post-electoral violence in Côte d’Ivoire between 16 December 2010 and 12 April 2011.

The former president’s defence lawyers had alleged that Côte d’Ivoire, while not a State Party to the Rome Statute, had accepted the ICC’s jurisdiction in a declaration made on 18 April 2003 only in relation to the events in 2002 and 2003, and not in relation to future crimes.

According to the ICC release, the appeals judges noted that under the terms of the Rome Statute, a State may accept the jurisdiction of the Court generally, and could not find a “temporal limitation” in the 2003 declaration.

The defence lawyers also asked for a stay of proceedings because of alleged violations of Mr. Gbagbo’s fundamental rights during his detention in Côte d’Ivoire, prior to his transfer to the ICC. That request was also dismissed by the judges, citing procedural reasons.

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The ICC is the first permanent, treaty-based, international criminal court established to help end impunity for the perpetrators of the most serious crimes of concern to the international community, namely war crimes, crimes against humanity, and genocide.

Sep 4, 2012

The Role of the International Court of Justice in the Enforcement of Its Judicial Decisions

Abstract
Together with the Security Council and the General Assembly, the International Court of Justice is one of the most important guarantors of peace, security and co-operation among states. The role of the ICJ in the enforcement of its decisions has received little attention in the existing literature. Although international courts, regional courts and national courts do not physically enforce their decisions, they have various levels of enforcement mechanism procedures. Nevertheless, it has been widely and mistakenly believed that it is not the business of the ICJ to enforce its decisions, but rather this is the business of other political bodies of the United Nations. It is argued in this paper that this proposition is not accurate and, instead, the ICJ has at its disposal various enforcement procedures and is, moreover, under statutory obligations to participate actively in policing and enforcing its decisions.

The full article about "The Role of the International Court of Justice in the Enforcement of Its Judicial Decisions" can be found in the Leiden Journal of International Law on the Cambridge Journals website.


Aug 23, 2012

الامم المتحدة و سيادة القانون

يدخل تعزيز سيادة القانون على الصعيدين الوطني والدولي في صميم رسالة الأمم المتحدة. ويشكل ترسيخ دعائم احترام سيادة القانون عنصرا أساسيا في إحلال السلام الدائم بعد انتهاء النزاع، وحماية حقوق الإنسان على نحو فعال، وتحقيق التقدم والتنمية في المجال الاقتصادي بشكل مطرد. ومبدأ خضوع الجميع - بدءا بالفرد وانتهاء بالدولة نفسها - للمساءلة بموجب قوانين صادرة علنا، وتطبق على الجميع بالتساوي، ويحتكم في إطارها إلى قضاء مستقل، هو مفهوم أساسي يرفد قسطا وافرا من أعمال الأمم المتحدة.
ويشمل مبدأ سيادة القانون المجسد في ميثاق الأمم المتحدة عناصر تتصل بإدارة العلاقات بين دولة وأخرى. وفي هذا الصدد، تضطلع أجهزة الأمم المتحدة الرئيسية، بما في ذلك الجمعية العامة ومجلس الأمن، بأدوار حيوية مستمدة من الميثاق وتتطلب العمل وفقا لأحكامه.
ومفهوم ’’سيادة القانون‘‘ هو لُب مهمة المنظمة. وهو يشير إلى مبدأ للحكم يكون فيه جميع الأشخاص والمؤسسات والكيانات والقطاعان العام والخاص، بما في ذلك الدولة ذاتها، مسؤولين أمام قوانين صادرة علنا، وتطبق على الجميع بالتساوي ويحتكم في إطارها إلى قضاء مستقل، وتتفق مع القواعد والمعايير الدولية لحقوق الإنسان. ويقتضي هذا المبدأ كذلك اتخاذ تدابير لكفالة الالتزام بمبادئ سيادة القانون، والمساواة أمام القانون، والمسؤولية أمام القانون، والعدل في تطبيق القانون، والفصل بين السلطات، والمشاركة في صنع القرار، واليقين القانوني، وتجنب التعسف، والشفافية الإجرائية والقانونية.
تقرير الأمين العام بشأن سيادة القانون والعدالة الانتقالية في
مجتمعات الصراع ومجتمعات ما بعد الصراع (S/2004/616 (ملف بصيغة الـ PDF)
وما فتئت الجمعية العامة تنظر في موضوع سيادة القانون بصفته بندا من بنود جدول الأعمال منذ عام 1992، وجددت اهتمامها به منذ عام 2006، واتخذت قرارات بشأنه في دوراتها الثلاث الأخيرة (A/RES/61/39)، و A/RES/62/70، و A/RES/63/128). وأجرى مجلس الأمن عددا من المناقشات المواضيعية بشأن موضوع سيادة القانون (S/PRST/2003/15، و S/PRST/2004/2، و S/PRST/2004/32، و S/PRST/2005/30، و S/PRST/2006/28)، واتخذ قرارات تشدد على أهمية هذه المسائل في سياق مواضيع المرأة والسلام والأمن (S/RES/1325، و S/RES/1820)، والأطفال والنزاعات المسلحة (على سبيل المثال، S/RES/1612)، وحماية المدنيين في النزاعات المسلحة (على سبيل المثال، S/RES/1674). وتناولت لجنة بناء السلام أيضا بانتظام مسائل سيادة القانون فيما يتعلق بالبلدان المدرجة في جدول أعمالها.
وللمنظمة آليات قضائية، من قبيل محكمة العدل الدولية، وهي الجهاز القضائي الرئيسي للأمم المتحدة، والمحاكم الجنائية المخصصة، والمحاكم المختلطة.

أنشطة الأمم المتحدة

تدعم أنشطة سيادة القانون التي تضطلع بها الأمم المتحدة وضع المعايير والمقاييس الدولية في معظم مجالات القانون الدولي وتعزيزها وتنفيذها.
وتعمل الأمم المتحدة من أجل دعم وجود إطار تتحقق فيه سيادة القانون على الصعيد الوطني: سن دستور أو ما يعادله، بوصفه القانون الأسمى في البلد؛ ووضع إطار قانوني واضح ومتسق، مع كفالة تنفيذه؛ وبناء مؤسسات قوية تتولى شؤون العدل والحكم والأمن وحقوق الإنسان، تحظى بقدر واف من التنظيم والتمويل والتدريب والتجهيز؛ وإرساء عمليات العدالة الانتقالية وآلياتها؛ وإقامة مجتمع عام ومدني يساهم في تعزيز سيادة القانون وإخضاع الموظفين الحكوميين والمؤسسات العامة للمساءلة. فتلك هي المعايير والسياسات والمؤسسات والعمليات التي تشكل صلب المجتمع الذي ينعم في ظله الأفراد بالسلامة والأمان، وحيث تسوّى النزاعات بالطرق السلمية، وتتوافر سبل الانتصاف لجبر الضرر، ويخضع للمساءلة كل من ينتهك القانون، بما في ذلك الدولة.
وهناك ما يربو على 40 كيانا من كيانات الأمم المتحدة تنشط في مجالات سيادة القانون، وتعكف المنظمة على تنفيذ عمليات وبرامج سيادة القانون فيما ينيف على 110 بلدان في جميع مناطق العالم، ويوجد أكبر حضور لها في أفريقيا. وتنفذ العديد من كيانات الأمم المتحدة أنشطة في البلدان نفسها. فهناك خمسة كيانات أو يزيد تعمل حاليا بشكل متزامن في مجال سيادة القانون في ما لا يقل عن 24 بلدا، معظمها يعيش في حالة نزاع أو في مرحلة ما بعد النزاع.

جهود تنسيق أنشطة الأمم المتحدة في مجال سيادة القانون

تقع المسؤولية عن التنسيق العام لأنشطة سيادة القانون على عاتق الفريق التنسيقي المرجعي المعني بسيادة القانون، الذي يرأسه نائب الأمين العام وتدعمه وحدة سيادة القانون.
ويتألف الفريق من إدارة الشؤون السياسية وإدارة عمليات حفظ السلام ومفوضية الأمم المتحدة لحقوق الإنسان ومكتب الشؤون القانونية وبرنامج الأمم المتحدة الإنمائي ومنظمة الأمم المتحدة للطفولة ومفوضية الأمم المتحدة لشؤون اللاجئين وصندوق الأمم المتحدة الإنمائي للمرأة ومكتب الأمم المتحدة المعني بالمخدرات والجريمة.
وقد وضع الفريق توجيهات سياساتية لتفادي ازدواجية العمل وتحقيق أكبر قدر من التآزر، وأخذ يتبع نهجا استراتيجيا جديدا قائما على النتائج فيما يتصل بعمل الأمم المتحدة في مجال سيادة القانون. ووافق الفريق على خطة استراتيجية مشتركة للفترة 2009-2011، ووضع حتى الآن المذكرات التوجيهية التالية الصادرة عن الأمين العام: نهج الأمم المتحدة في تقديم المساعدة في مجال سيادة القانون، ونهج الأمم المتحدة في مجال إقامة العدل لصالح الأطفال، ودور الأمم المتحدة في صوغ الدساتير.

ترد أدناه بعض الوثائق الرئيسية بشأن الأمم المتحدة وسيادة القانون:

  • إعلان الأمم المتحدة بشأن الألفية (A/RES/55/2)
  • سيادة القانون على الصعيدين الوطني والدولي (A/RES/61/39) وتقرير الإبراهيمي: استعراض شامل لكامل عمليات حفظ السلام من جميع نواحي هذه العمليات (A/55/305)
  • نتائج مؤتمر القمة العالمي لعام 2005 (A/RES/60/1)
  • تقرير الأمين العام: ’’في جو من الحرية أفسح: صوب تحقيق التنمية، والأمن، وحقوق الإنسان للجميع‘‘ (A/59/2005)
  • تقرير الأمين العام: ’’سيادة القانون والعدالة الانتقالية في مجتمعات الصراع ومجتمعات ما بعد الصراع‘‘ ( S/2004/616)
  • تقرير الأمين العام: ’’لنوحد قوانا: تعزيز الدعم الذي تقدمه الأمم المتحدة من أجل سيادة القانون‘‘ (A/61/636)
  • تقرير الأمين العام: ’’تعزيز أنشطة الأمم المتحدة في مجال سيادة القانون وتنسيقها‘‘(A/63/226)
  • التقرير السنوي عن تعزيز أنشطة الأمم المتحدة في مجال سيادة القانون وتنسيقها (A/64/298)



The Shanghai Cooperation Organization and the Law of International Organizations

Abstract
The creation of the Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO) represents new global visions. The SCO is one of the most recent regional organizations to emerge in the new millennium. It is established within an important region and in a very critical stage. The SCO fulfills the criteria of the status of a regional organization under the law of international organization. However, the SCO needs some improvement, especially with regard to its dispute settlement procedures and better appreciation of its enforcement mechanism in order to realize its goals and objectives.

The full article about "The Shanghai Cooperation Organization and the Law of International Organizations" can be found on the Oxford Journals website.


Apr 13, 2011

How to Win Friends and Influence People

1. Create your own emotions.

“If you want to be enthusiastic, act enthusiastic.”

Emotions work backwards too. You can use that to your advantage. If you are stuck in a negative emotion then you can often shake it off. Change your body – how you move, sit and stand – and act as you would like to feel. Enthusiasm and other positive emotions are much more useful and pleasurable for everyone in an interaction. Because…


2.
It’s not so much about the logical stuff.

“When dealing with people, remember you are not dealing with creatures of logic, but creatures of emotion.”

This is so key. Logic is good but in the end, in interactions and in life, we are emotional creatures. We send and receive emotions from other people. That is one reason why body language and voice tonality is often said be up to 93% of communication. Now, those numbers were for some specific situations but I still believe that these two ways of communication are very, very important. The body language and the voice tonality is a bit like the rest of the iceberg, the great mass below the tip of the words we use. Those two things communicate how we are feeling and give indication to what we are thinking. And that’s why it’s important to be able to change how you feel. To be in a positive mood while interacting. Because that will have a great impact on how you say something and how you use your body. And those two things will have a big impact on your results and relationships.


3. Three things you are better off avoiding.

“Any fool can criticize, condemn, and complain but it takes character and self control to be understanding and forgiving.”

Now these things may not be easy to avoid all together. Much of our interactions and perhaps even bonds are created and maintained through those three negative C’s. There is a sort of twisted pleasure in criticising, condemning and complaining. It might make you feel more important and like a better person as you see yourself as a victim or as you condemn other people’s behaviour.  But in the end these three C’s are negative and limiting to your life. Bringing up negative stuff and wallowing in it will lower your mood, motivation and general levels of wellbeing. And this can trap you in a negative spiral of complaining, complaining with other complainers and always finding faults in your reality. You will also be broadcasting and receiving negative emotions. And people in general want to feel good. So this can really put an obstacle in the way for your interactions or relationships.


4. What is most important?

“The royal road to a man’s heart is to talk to him about the things he treasures most.”

Classic advice. Don’t talk too much about yourself and your life. Listen to other people instead. However, if they ramble on and on, if they don’t reciprocate and show and interest in your life then you don’t have to stay.  Some things people may treasure the most include ideas, children, a special hobby and the job. And…


5. Focus outward, not inward.

“You can make more friends in two months by becoming interested in other people than you can in two years by trying to get other people interested in you.”

A lot of people use the second, far less effective way. It is appealing because it’s about instant gratification and about ME, ME, ME! The first way – to become interested in people – perhaps works better because it make you a pleasant exception and because the law of reciprocity is strong in people. As you treat people, they will treat you. Be interested in them and they will be interested in you. I would like to add that one hard thing about this can be to be genuinely interested in the other guy/gal. Your genuine interest is projected though your body language and tonality. So, just waiting for the other person to stop talking so you can talk again isn’t really genuine interest. And that may shine through. And so your interactions will suffer.


6. Take control of your emotions.

“The person who seeks all their applause from outside has their happiness in another’s keeping.”

It wrote about this problem a few days ago in 9 Great Ways to Make Yourself Absolutely Miserable. And it basically consist of being too reliant or dependent on external validation from other people. External validation is something someone communicates to you that tells you that you are person of value. That you, for example, are pretty, smart or successful.  This leaves much of your emotions in the hands of other people. It becomes an emotional rollercoaster. One day you feel great. The next day you feel like just staying in bed. But if you fill that inner cup of validation for yourself instead then you take over the wheel. Now you’re driving, now you control how you feel. You can still appreciate compliments of course, but you aren’t dependent on them. This will make you more emotionally stable and enables you to cultivate and build your emotional muscles in a more controlled way. You can for instance help yourself to become more optimistic or enthusiastic more of the time. This stability and growth can be big help in your relationships.


7. No, they are not holding you back.

“Instead of worrying about what people say of you, why not spend time trying to accomplish something they will admire.”
Caring too much about what people think will create and feed imaginary monsters within your mind. You may for instance think that people will condemn you if you try something. Maybe they will. But most of the time people are thinking about their own challenges and ups and downs. They just don’t care that much about what you do.  This may feel disappointing. It can also be liberating. It helps you remove inner obstacles that are you holding yourself back. As you, bit by bit or in one big swoop, release those inner brakes you become more of yourself. You become more confident, you have a better chance at success, and you will feel more positive feelings and less negative ones. All these things can give a big boost to your interactions and help you sharpen those social skills.


8. So, what’s in it for me?

“There is only one way… to get anybody to do anything. And that is by making the other person want to do it.”

If you want someone to do something then will they care about your motivation for getting this thing done? Perhaps. Often they will not have that great of an interest in what you want out of something.  They want to know what they will get out of it. So, for the both of you to get what you want out of something tell that person what’s in it for him/her. And try to be genuine and positive about it. A reason for them to do it delivered in a lame, half-assed manner may not be so persuasive. And so you both lose.


9. How to win an argument.

“The only way to get the best of an argument is to avoid it.”

Getting two egos wrapped up in an argument, having two sides defending their positions desperately, will not improve relationships. You are more likely to feel negative feelings towards each other long after the argument is over. And so you both wallow in negativity and you both lose. When possible, just avoiding unnecessary arguments is a win-win situation.


10. It’s about more than your words.

“There are four ways, and only four ways, in which we have contact with the world. We are evaluated and classified by these four contacts: what we do, how we look, what we say, and how we say it.”

I often feel that there is a bit too much emphasis on the third way of contact (what we say). Don’t forget about the rest. Most people stereotype people at their first meeting. They might not want to but it is a way for their – and perhaps your – mind to organize impressions and people. So think about how you look. Think about how you make first impressions. Think about your body language. And how you are saying your sentences. Think about how you feel because that will be reflected out into the world. And the world will often reflect back something similar.


Reference: "How to Win Friends and Influence People" by Dale Carnegie